Arizona State Capitol Building, Phoenix: Sparkle Kitten

The Arizona State Capitol is in Phoenix.  It’s very peaceful and relaxing here.  There are orange trees along the road.  Einstein07 took an orange that was laying on the ground (in case the police are looking at this!)  The Capitol is split into two parts; one part is the historic old Capitol that was built in about 1900 and the other part is the modern new part that was built more recently.  There aren’t many trees in Arizona and the climate is very arid so they don’t use mulch made from trees (like pine strawor pine bark).  They also don’t have the same kind of bushes as we do.  You can see they use rocks for groundcover (they have lots of rocks in Arizona). They use cacti and palm trees for landscaping.  There are lots of different kind of cacti so it’s very interesting and pretty.  Many different kinds of rocks are found in Arizona; the rocks contain ore (Arizona is the copper state) and things like quartz and turquoise.  There are pillars with the different kind of rocks outside the Capitol.  Also outside the Capitol is a monument to the USS Arizona which was destroyed during the bombing of Pearl Harbor.  Pearl Harbor marked the United States entering WWII.  The mast from the USS Arizona is here.  The


Montezuma Castle, Arizona: Sparkle Kitten

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The picture above is Montezuma, who was the Emperor of the Aztecs in the early 1500’s  The Aztecs lived in the country that is now Mexico, but traveled to the Southern United States.  The other pictures are where they primarily lived, and what some of their dwellings looked like.  When the Spanish discovered North America, and traveled to the part that is now Mexico, they saw all the gold the Aztecs had; they decided they wanted it.  They defeated the Aztecs and Montezuma and claimed what is now Mexico as their own.  The reason this is important, is while they were traveling North into what is now Arizona, in search of the 7 Lost Cities of Gold, they came across huge cave dwellings 5 stories high

.  They were so impressive they thought they must be Aztec, and so they called them “Montezuma Castle”.  They were wrong; the cave dwellings here were built by Pueblo Indians.  We saw the dwellings near Phoenix, AZ.  They are impressive and near the Beaver Creek which provided water for the community.  It is very peaceful here with lots of native plants. Image result for montezuma castle

Book Review, Since You’ve Been Gone, by: Morgan Matson: Sparkle Kitten

Since You’ve Been Gone has 449 pages and I give it 5/5 Stars.  It was really good, and I read it VERY fast because I couldn’t put it down!  This book is about a girl named Emily.  She has an amazing summer planned with her best friend Sloane when suddenly she just goes missing!  All she leaves behind is a list of crazy things for Emily to do.  At the bottom of the list it says “when you’ve completed this list come and find me and tell me all about it.”  Emily’s summer goes from boring to exciting in just 24 hours.  I liked this book because I could really relate to the character Emily.  I could imagine how amazing my summer would get if that happened to me!

Meteor Crater near Flagstaff, AZ: Einstein07

The best preserved meteor impact site in the world is in Arizona.  It is about 1 mile across, and 2.5 miles around and 500 feet deep.  (the wind today was 40 MPH at the rim!) This meteor hit about 50,000 years ago.  The scientists that studied the rock here found black diamonds that were created through the heat on impact.  NASA sent astronauts here before they went to the moon to study craters so they would know what to look for on the moon.  This meteor exploded on impact sending lots of dirt and debris upward.  The meteor itself melted, and then turned into gas.  What is the difference between a comet, and an asteroid, and a meteor you may ask?  Here is the answer.  A comet is a chunk of ice and gas.  It is a small solar system body that orbits the sun. A comet has a fuzzy “coma” or outline and sometimes a tail.   An asteroid is a small solar system body that orbits the sun.  It is made of rock and metal mostly.  They do not have a fuzzy outline or tail like a comet.  A meteoroid is a small rock or particle of debris in our solar system.  They can be as small as dust to  very large; a meteor is a meteoroid that burns up as it passes through the Earth’s atmosphere.  If you see a shooting star, it IS a meteor.  A meteorite is a meteoroid that survives falling through the Earth’s atmosphere and crashes into Earth.  Image result for meteorMeteor!

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Asteroid.  Especially in the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.  Sometimes pass through earth’s atmosphere.  They are tracked on a “Torino” scale to determine the probability of threat.

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This is a picture of a comet.

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona: Sparkle Kitten

The Petrified Forest National Park contains part of America’s historic Route 66.  The petrified wood found here dates back 225 Million Years to the late Triasic period.  Arizona used to be covered in a marshy forest at that time, much like Louisiana is today.  There were many large animals including the “alligator like” animal that was the main predator called the “macaeroprosopus”

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The water receded into rivers.  Huge conifer trees 180 feet tall fell into the river and were carried down with a huge force.  Later the trees became waterlogged and sank to the bottom.  They were then covered with layers of volcanic ash and sediment that protected them from rotting.  They then soaked in silica from the volcanic ash which preserved them and then absorbed different minerals from the water over time, making them rocks.  The different colors in the petrified trees are from the different minerals they absorbed.  Petrified wood is found everywhere, but this is the largest collection.  It is also in an area known as the painted dessert where lots of different layers of earth show different colors.  Ravens live here (shown above).  They are black and aren’t well suited to the heat, so they pant to keep cool.  There are also pueblo ruins here, with structures that had over 100 rooms.  In addition, there are petroglyphs like the ones we saw in Albuquerque, NM.  One interesting thing about the petroglyphs is that they resemble each other even though these locations are over 200 miles apart.  The soil is very cracked here because of the arid climate.  It feels like clay if you wet it.  There are also little plants that come up through the cracks.  Petrified comes from the Latin word “petra” for stone or rock and -ficare, from facere “to make, do” or the more recent French word “petrafier”.  Image result for colorful petrified wood

The Moors, The Spanish, and a Bell: Einstein07

The reason that you see these pictures above is because once upon a time, a new queen came into Spain. She wanted all the moors (Muslims) out if they were not Catholic. The priest tried to negotiate with the moors. He said,” If you are not Catholic, leave.” The moors had a clear and simple answer,” No,”; they stood their ground. This lead to a great war(but very bloody). This blocked up the Spanish’s routes to trade with India. That is why Christopher Columbus sailed west to find another way to India. That is how the Spanish found out about America. The bell above is from the time of that war. They thought God as angry with them so they all gathered up amulets and precious(and non precious) metals. So they rang that bell and (and probably a coincidence that) they beat the moors. They thought they showed God that they sacrificed something so he helped them.

Bell Recipe

  1. Dig hole in ground in shape of an inverted bell
  2. Line hole with tiles
  3. Melt precious metals and pour into hole
  4. Stick large oak tree center to hollow out bell
  5. Let cool
  6. Enjoy your bell

This how they actually made this bell.

We are at the End of the Santa Fe Trail (or is it the beginning?): Einstein07

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Santa Fe, New Mexico is a main city here.  There was a historic trading  route that ran between Independence, MO and Santa Fe, NM.  It was known as the Santa Fe Trail.  Pioneers and traders used this route to help settle the west.  At the time, New Mexico was a territory and not a state.   People from Mexico City, and Texas also used Santa Fe as a trading hub.  Santa Fe is along the Rio Grande.

Pueblo Indians, Pueblos, Adobe, New Mexico: Einstein07

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Spanish people that visited this area called the structures the Native People were living in “Pueblos” which was the Spanish word for “towns”.  Image result for pueblo indians

The term “Pueblo Indian” refers to Native Indians from this area that lived in this type of dwelling.  It does not refer to a specific tribe.  Today there are 21 different remaining tribes of Pueblo Indians including Zuni and Hopi.  The Pueblo Indians were not removed from their lands, so they live on reservations here in New Mexico in their original ancestral home areas.  Related image

Pueblos are built from Adobe Bricks.  The bricks are made from stone, sand, mud, and clay and mixed with animal hair or straw.  They are then baked in the sun.Image result for adobe bricks